Study finds effectiveness of fasting diet (5:2 diet) in clearing fat

Researchers from the University of Surrey examined the effectiveness of the 5:2 diet vs. daily calorie restriction diet. They found that 5:2 diet clears triglycerides from blood quicker after eating meals. Their findings are published in British Journal of Nutrition reports.

The study divided overweight people into two groups. One group was assigned 5:2 diet another group was assigned daily calorie restriction diet. They measured days required for 5% weight loss, ability to clear fat and glucose from the blood. The 5:2 diet involved eating regularly for five days and restricting remaining 2 days to 600 calories per day.

Results of the study showed that subjects assigned to 5:2 diet lost 5% weight in 59 days compared other group which took 73 days. Researchers also found improved ability to clear triglycerides in this group. The study also found 9% reduction in systolic blood pressure by in 5:2 group.

Dr. Rona Antoni, Research Fellow in Nutritional Metabolism at the University of Surrey, said:

As seen in this study, some of our participants struggled to tolerate the 5:2 diet, which suggests that this approach is not suited to everybody; ultimately the key to dieting success is finding an approach you can sustain long term.

“But for those who do well and are able stick to the 5:2 diet, it could potentially have a beneficial impact on some important risk markers for cardiovascular disease, in some cases more so than daily dieting. However, we need further studies to confirm our findings, to understand the underlying mechanisms and to improve the tolerability of the 5:2 diet.”

Citation:  Antoni, Rona, Kelly L. Johnston, Adam L. Collins, and M. Denise Robertson. “Intermittent v. Continuous Energy Restriction: Differential Effects on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism following Matched Weight Loss in Overweight/obese Participants.” British Journal of Nutrition 119, no. 05 (2018): 507-16. doi:10.1017/s0007114517003890.

Adapted from press release by the University of Surrey.

Vitamin E requirements increased in people suffering from metabolic syndrome

New research has shown that people with metabolic syndrome need significantly more vitamin E – which could be a serious public health concern, in light of the millions of people who have this condition that’s often related to obesity. A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition also made it clear that conventional tests to measure vitamin E levels in the blood may have limited accuracy compared to tests made in research laboratories, to the point that conventional tests can actually mask an underlying problem.

Vitamin E supplements. Credit: John Liu / Oregon State University.

Vitamin E – one of the more difficult micronutrients to obtain by dietary means – is an antioxidant important for cell protection. It also affects gene expression, immune function, aids in the repair of wounds and the damage of atherosclerosis, is important for vision and neurologic function, and largely prevents fat from going rancid.

Nutrition surveys have estimated that 92 percent of men and 96 percent of women in the United States fail to get an adequate daily intake of vitamin E in their diet. It is found at high levels in almonds, wheat germ, various seeds and oils, and at much lower levels in some vegetables and salad greens, such as spinach and kale.

This study was done by researchers at the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University and the Human Nutrition Program at The Ohio State University, as a double-blind, crossover clinical trial focusing on vitamin E levels in people with metabolic syndrome. “The research showed that people with metabolic syndrome need about 30-50 percent more vitamin E than those who are generally healthy,” said Maret Traber, a professor in the OSU College of Public Health and Human Sciences, and Ava Helen Pauling Professor in the Linus Pauling Institute.

“In previous work, we showed that people with metabolic syndrome had a lower bioavailability of vitamin E. Our current work uses a novel approach to measure how much vitamin E the body needs. This study clearly demonstrates that people with metabolic syndrome need a higher intake of this vitamin.”

More than 30 percent of the American public are obese, and more than 25 percent of the adults in the United States meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome, putting them at significantly increased the risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes primary causes of death in the developed world.

That syndrome is defined by diagnosis of three or more of several conditions, including abdominal obesity, elevated lipids, high blood pressure, pro-inflammatory state, a pro-thrombotic state and insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance. This research, for the first time, also clearly outlined a flaw with conventional approaches to measuring vitamin E.

By “labeling” vitamin E with deuterium, a stable isotope of hydrogen, scientists were able to measure the amount of the micronutrient that was eliminated by the body, compared to the intake. The advanced research laboratory tests, which are not available to the general public, showed that people with metabolic syndrome retained 30-50 percent more vitamin E than healthy people – showing that they needed it. When the body doesn’t need vitamin E, the excess is excreted.

But in the group with metabolic syndrome, even as their tissues were taking up and retaining the needed vitamin E, their blood levels by conventional measurement appeared about the same as those of a normal, healthy person.

“We’ve discovered that vitamin E levels often look normal in the blood, because this micronutrient is attracted to high cholesterol and fat,” Traber said. “So vitamin E can stay at higher levels in the circulatory system and give the illusion of adequate levels, even as tissues are deficient.

“This basically means that conventional vitamin E blood tests as they are now being done are useless.”

The findings support the conclusion that people with metabolic syndrome have higher levels of oxidative and inflammatory stress, scientists said in their conclusion, and require more antioxidants such as vitamins E as a result.

Citation: Maret G Traber, Eunice Mah, Scott W Leonard, Gerd Bobe, and Richard S Bruno. “Metabolic syndrome increases dietary α-tocopherol requirements as assessed using urinary and plasma vitamin E catabolites: a double-blind, crossover clinical trial.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2017 pp: ajcn138495
DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138495
Research funding: National Institutes of Health, National Dairy Council, and DSM Nutrition.
Adapted from press release by Oregon State University.

Decreased mortality associated with eating red hot chili peppers

Researchers at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, who found that consumption of hot red chili peppers is associated with a 13 percent reduction in total mortality primarily in deaths due to heart disease or stroke in a large prospective study. The study was published recently in PLoS ONE.

Chili Peppers. Wikipedia

Going back for centuries, peppers and spices have been thought to be beneficial in the treatment of diseases, but only one other study — conducted in China and published in 2015 – has previously examined chili pepper consumption and its association with mortality. This new study corroborates the earlier study’s findings.

Using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III data collected from more than 16,000 Americans who were followed for up to 23 years, medical student Mustafa Chopan ’17 and Professor of Medicine Benjamin Littenberg, M.D., examined the baseline characteristics of the participants according to hot red chili pepper consumption. They found that consumers of hot red chili peppers tended to be “younger, male, white, Mexican-American, married, and to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and consume more vegetables and meats had lower HDL-cholesterol, lower income, and less education,” in comparison to participants who did not consume red chili peppers. They examined data from a median follow-up of 18.9 years and observed the number of deaths and then analyzed specific causes of death.

“Although the mechanism by which peppers could delay mortality is far from certain, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels, which are primary receptors for pungent agents such as capsaicin (the principal component in chili peppers), may in part be responsible for the observed relationship,” say the study authors.

There are some possible explanations for red chili peppers’ health benefits, state Chopan and Littenberg in the study. Among them are the fact that capsaicin – the principal component in chili peppers is believed to play a role in cellular and molecular mechanisms that prevent obesity and modulate coronary blood flow, and also possesses antimicrobial properties that “may indirectly affect the host by altering the gut microbiota.”

“Because our study adds to the generalizability of previous findings, chili pepper — or even spicy food – consumption may become a dietary recommendation and/or fuel further research in the form of clinical trials,” says Chopan.

Citation: Chopan, Mustafa, and Benjamin Littenberg. “The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study.” PloS one 12, no. 1 (2017): e0169876.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169876
Adapted from press release by the University of Vermont.

Research in mice show antioxidants in blue maize have protective effect against metabolic syndrome

A new study shows that a rat model of metabolic syndrome fed a high-sugar and high-cholesterol diet and given blue maize extract showed significant improvement in systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared to those not given the extract. The natural antioxidants present in blue maize may help protect against metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, raising interest in using blue maize as a component of functional foods and nutraceuticals, according to an article published in Journal of Medicinal Food.

Credit: Pexels /Pixabay

In the article Rosa Isela Guzman-Geronimoa and coauthors from Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, and Unidad Oaxaca/Calle Hornos, Mexico, report that the animals fed a high-sugar and high-cholesterol diet that received blue maize extract had a significantly smaller increase in abdominal fat compared to the abdominal fat gain in rats that did not receive the extract.

“Anti-obesity food materials are always in demand, and this study brings out not only the importance of blue maize in controlling adipocity, but also the potential role of cholesterol in the development of obesity,” says Journal of Medicinal Food Editor-in-Chief Sampath Parthasarathy, MBA, PhD, Florida Hospital Chair in Cardiovascular Sciences and Interim Associate Dean, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida.

Citation: Guzmán-Gerónimo Rosa Isela, Alarcón-Zavaleta Tania Margarita, Oliart-Ros Rosa María, Meza-Alvarado José Enrique, Herrera-Meza Socorro, and Chávez-Servia José Luis. “Blue Maize Extract Improves Blood Pressure, Lipid Profiles, and Adipose Tissue in High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.” Journal of Medicinal Food. December 2016, ahead of print. DOI:10.1089/jmf.2016.0087

Role of Vitamin C in cancer treatment

Vitamin C has a patchy history as a cancer therapy, but researchers at the University of Iowa believe that is because it has often been used in a way that guarantees failure. Most vitamin C therapies involve taking the substance orally. However, the UI scientists have shown that giving vitamin C intravenously and bypassing normal gut metabolism and excretion pathways create blood levels that are 100 – 500 times higher than levels seen with oral ingestion. It is this super-high concentration in the blood that is crucial to vitamin C’s ability to attack cancer cells.

Citrus fruits, a rich source of Vitamin C. Credit: LoggaWiggler/pixabay

Earlier work by UI redox biology expert Garry Buettner found that at these extremely high levels (in the millimolar range), vitamin C selectively kills cancer cells but not normal cells in the test tube and in mice. Physicians at UI Hospitals and Clinics are now testing the approach in clinical trials for pancreatic cancer and lung cancer that combine high-dose, intravenous vitamin C with standard chemotherapy or radiation. Earlier phase 1 trials indicated this treatment is safe and well-tolerated and hinted that the therapy improves patient outcomes. The current, larger trials aim to determine if the treatment improves survival.

In a study, published in journal Redox Biology, Buettner and his colleagues have homed in on the biological details of how high-dose vitamin C (also known as ascorbate) kills cancer cells. The study shows that vitamin C breaks down easily, generating hydrogen peroxide, a so-called reactive oxygen species that can damage tissue and DNA. The study also shows that tumor cells are much less capable of removing the damaging hydrogen peroxide than normal cells.

“In this paper we demonstrate that cancer cells are much less efficient in removing hydrogen peroxide than normal cells. Thus, cancer cells are much more prone to damage and death from a high amount of hydrogen peroxide,” says Buettner, a professor of radiation oncology and a member of Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Iowa. “This explains how the very, very high levels of vitamin C used in our clinical trials do not affect normal tissue, but can be damaging to tumor tissue.”

Normal cells have several ways to remove hydrogen peroxide, keeping it at very low levels so it does not cause damage. The new study shows that an enzyme called catalase is the central route for removing hydrogen peroxide generated by decomposing vitamin C. The researchers discovered that cells with lower amounts of catalase activity were more susceptible to damage and death when they were exposed to high amounts of vitamin C.

Buettner says this fundamental information might help determine which cancers and which therapies could be improved by inclusion of high-dose ascorbate in the treatment. “Our results suggest that cancers with low levels of catalase are likely to be the most responsive to high-dose vitamin C therapy, whereas cancers with relatively high levels of catalase may be the least responsive,” he explains. A future goal of the research is to develop methods to measure catalase levels in tumors.

Citation: Doskey, Claire M., Visarut Buranasudja, Brett A. Wagner, Justin G. Wilkes, Juan Du, Joseph J. Cullen, and Garry R. Buettner. “Tumor cells have decreased ability to metabolize H 2 O 2: Implications for pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy.” Redox Biology 10 (2016): 274-284.
DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2016.10.010
Research Funding: National Institutes of Health, Gateway for Cancer Research.
Adapted from press release by the University of Iowa.

Chronic headache and Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of a chronic headache, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. The findings were published in Scientific Reports.

The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, KIHD, analyzed the serum vitamin D levels and occurrence of a headache in approximately 2,600 men aged between 42 and 60 years in 1984-1989. In 68% of these men, the serum vitamin D level was below 50 nmol/l, which is generally considered the threshold for vitamin D deficiency. A chronic headache occurring at least on a weekly basis was reported by 250 men, and men reporting chronic headache had lower serum vitamin D levels than others.

When the study population was divided into four groups based on their serum vitamin D levels, the group with the lowest levels had over a twofold risk of a chronic headache in comparison to the group with the highest levels. A chronic headache was also more frequently reported by men who were examined outside the summer months of June through September. Thanks to UVB radiation from the sun, the average serum vitamin D levels are higher during the summer months.

The study adds to the accumulating body of evidence linking a low intake of vitamin D to an increased risk of chronic diseases. Low vitamin D levels have been associated with the risk of a headache also by some earlier, mainly considerably smaller studies.

In Finland and in other countries far from the Equator, UVB radiation from the sun is a sufficient source of vitamin D during the summer months, but outside the summer season, people need to make sure that they get sufficient vitamin D from food or from vitamin D supplements.

No scientific evidence relating to the benefits and possible adverse effects of long-term use in higher doses yet exists. The Finnish Vitamin D Trial, FIND, currently ongoing at the University of Eastern Finland will shed light on the question, as the five-year trial analyses the effects of high daily doses of vitamin D on the risk factors and development of diseases. The trial participants are taking a vitamin D supplement of 40 or 80 micrograms per day. The trial also investigates the effects of vitamin D supplementation on various pain conditions.

Citation: Virtanen, Jyrki K.,  Rashid Giniatullin, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Sari Voutilainen, Tarja Nurmi, Jaakko Mursu, Jussi Kauhanen & Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen. “Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with higher risk of frequent headache in middle-aged and older men.” Scientific Reports 2017 vol: 7 pp: 39697.
DOI: 10.1038/srep39697
Adapted from press release by the University of Eastern Finland.

Research shows red cabbage microgreens reduce weight gain and lower cholesterol in mice fed on high-fat diet

Microgreens are sprouting up everywhere from upscale restaurants to home gardens. They help spruce up old recipes with intense flavors and colors and are packed with nutrients. Now research has shown that for mice on a high-fat diet, red cabbage microgreens helped lower their risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease and reduce their weight gain. The report appears in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

In an animal study, red cabbage microgreens helped lower “bad” cholesterol. Credit: American Chemical Society

Microgreens are tender, immature plants and herbs that take only a week or two to grow before they’re ready for harvesting. A growing body of research suggests that microgreens could offer more health benefits than their mature counterparts. And since previous studies have shown that full-grown red cabbage can help guard against excessive cholesterol, Thomas T.Y. Wang and colleagues wanted to see if red cabbage microgreens might have a similar or even greater effect than their larger counterparts.

To test their hypothesis, the researchers used mice that were a modelled for obesity. These animals also tend to develop high cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The team divided 60 of these mice into different diet groups. They received food low in fat or high in fat, and with or without either red cabbage microgreens or mature red cabbage. Both the microgreens and mature cabbage diets reduced weight gain and levels of liver cholesterol in the mice on high-fat diets. The study showed that microgreens intake lowered LDL cholesterol, liver triglyceride, and inflammatory cytokine levels in the animals. 

Citation: Huang, Haiqiu, Xiaojing Jiang, Zhenlei Xiao, Lu Yu, Quynhchi Pham, Jianghao Sun, Pei Chen, Wallace Yokoyama, Liangli Lucy Yu, Yaguang Sunny Luo, and Thomas T. Y. Wang. “Red cabbage microgreen lower circulating LDL, liver cholesterol and inflammatory cytokines in mice fed a high fat diet.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2016).
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03805
Research funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Adapted from press release by The American Chemical Society.

Research on Zebrafish show that probiotic bacteria help reduce stress and anxiety

Researchers at the University of Missouri, using a zebrafish model, determined that a common probiotic sold in supplements and yogurt can decrease stress-related behavior and anxiety. Studying how gut bacteria affect behavior in zebrafish could lead to a better understanding of how probiotics may affect the central nervous system in humans. Their results recently were published in Scientific Reports a journal of Nature.

“Zebrafish are an emerging model species for neurobehavioral studies and their use is well-established in drug-screening,” said Aaron Ericsson, director of the MU Metagenomics Center and a research assistant professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology. “Our study has shown that simple probiotics that we normally use to keep our digestive tract in sync, could be beneficial to reducing our stress levels as well.”

In a series of studies, researchers tested how zebrafish behaved after doses of Lactobacillus plantarum, a common bacteria found in yogurt and probiotic supplements. In the first study, scientists added the bacteria to certain tanks housing zebrafish; other tanks of zebrafish received no probiotics. Then, the researchers introduced environmental stressors to both groups, such as draining small amounts of water from the tank and overcrowding.

“Each day we introduced a different stressor — tests that are validated by other researchers and cause higher anxiety among zebrafish,” said Elizabeth Bryda, professor of veterinary pathobiology in the MU College of Veterinary Medicine. “These are common environmental stress patterns, such as isolation stress and temperature change, so it made the tests relevant to humans as well.”

By analyzing the gene pathways of both groups of fish, the research team found that zebrafish that were given the probiotic supplements showed a reduction in the metabolic pathways associated with stress. “By measuring the genes associated with stress and anxiety, our tests were able to predict how this common probiotic is able to benefit behavioral responses in these fish,” said Daniel Davis, assistant director of the MU Animal Modeling Core.

To test their theory further, the researchers measured the movements of fish in their tanks using sophisticated computer measuring and imaging tools. Previous studies of fish behavior have found that fish that are stressed tend to spend more time at the bottom of their tanks. Once the fish were administered probiotics, they tended to spend more time toward the top of the tanks — the change in behavior indicating they were less stressed or less anxious.

Citation: Davis, Daniel J., Holly M. Doerr, Agata K. Grzelak, Susheel B. Busi, Eldin Jasarevic, Aaron C. Ericsson, and Elizabeth C. Bryda. “Lactobacillus plantarum attenuates anxiety-related behavior and protects against stress-induced dysbiosis in adult zebrafish.” Scientific Reports 6 (2016).
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep33726
Research funding: Missouri-Columbia College of Veterinary Medicine
Adapted from press release by the University of Missouri-Columbia.

Walnut consumption is key to better mood and happiness in college students

Professor Pribis recommends a handful of walnuts, 1 to 3 ounces,
daily for increased health benefits. The benefits from the tree nut
 not only positively affect mood but also the cardiovascular
system and can be used as a support for weight loss.
Credit: California Walnut Commission
College can be a stressful time for young adults as they figure out how to manage intense daily routines that include work, study, and play. Eat well, exercise and get plenty of sleep is a familiar mantra to alleviate this stress, but now with the results of his latest study, UNM Nutrition Professor Peter Pribis is able to tell college students that walnuts could be a key to a happier state-of-mind. 
In this first intervention study in humans, Pribis measured the effect of walnut consumption on mood. “In the past, studies on walnuts have shown beneficial effects on many health outcomes like heart disease, diabetes, and obesity,” said Pribis. “Our study was different because we focused on cognition, and in this controlled randomized trial (CRT) we measured mood outcomes in males and females.”

The participants of the study were 64 students between the ages of 18-25. They represented most ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Hispanic and Asian. The participants were asked to eat three slices of banana bread every day for sixteen weeks–eight weeks of banana bread with walnuts and eight weeks of banana bread without walnuts. The nuts were finely ground into the dough so the two banana breads were similar in taste and appearance. While eating banana bread with walnuts the participants consumed half a cup of walnuts daily. The mood of the students was measured at the end of each eight-week period.

“We used a validated questionnaire called Profiles of Mood States (POMS),” says Pribis. “It is one of the most widely used and accepted mood scales in studies on cognition. The test has six mood domains: tension, depression, anger, fatigue, vigor, confusion and also provides a Total Mood Disturbance score (TMD). The lower the TMD score the better the mood.”

In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over feeding trial with walnuts for eight weeks, Pribis observed a significant improvement in mood in young, healthy males. “There was a meaningful, 28 percent improvement of mood in young men,” said Pribis. “However we did not observe any improvement of mood in females. Why this is we do not know.”

There are several nutrients in walnuts that could be responsible for the improved mood like alpha-Linolenic acid, vitamin E, folate, polyphenols or melatonin. However, this was a whole food study, so in the end, it was the synergy and interaction of all the nutrients in the walnuts combined.

For Pribis, the lesson learned from this food study is clear, “Eat more walnuts. This is an easy intervention. They’re not only good for your mood but overall health as well. The recommended amount is one handful per day.” With this knowledge in hand–and hopefully, walnuts in the other–young men can happily tackle life’s daily stress.

Citation: Pribis, Peter. “Effects of Walnut Consumption on Mood in Young Adults—A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Nutrients 8, no. 11 (2016): 668.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8110668
Research funding: California Walnut Commission 

Adapted from press release by University of New Mexico.

Research finds that better cognitive function is associated with higher physical activity and healthy eating habits (fruits and vegetables)

Findings published this week in the Journal of Public Health reveal that both younger and older Canadian adults who engage in regular physical activity, consume more fruits and vegetables and are normal weight or overweight have overall better cognitive functioning.

Regular engagement in physical activity and healthy eating has long been associated with a reduced risk for a range of chronic conditions. For older adults, there is a growing body of evidence that exercising may delay the onset of cognitive decline. Similarly, compounds found in fruits and vegetables have been shown to fight illnesses and help maintain healthy processes in the body. Given the increasing rates of inactivity and obesity in the world, researchers are interested in understanding the relationship between clusters of risk factors for cognitive decline, and how lifestyle factors might help prevent or delay it.

Previous studies in Spain and Korea have shown that older adults who eat more fruits and vegetables perform better in mentally stimulating activities than older adults who report eating a lower amount. However, very few studies have investigated the relationships between physical activity and eating fruit and vegetables and the effect it has on the brain for both younger and older adults.

This study examined cross-sectional data from 45,522, 30 years of age and older, participants from the 2012 annual component of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Cognitive function was assessed using a single 6-level question of the Health Utilities Index, which assessed mental processes, such as thinking, memory, and problem solving. Participants were analyzed by their age, level of physical activity, body mass index, and daily intake of fruit and vegetables. Using general linear models and mediation analyses, researchers assessed the relationship between these factors and participants’ overall cognitive function.

The results showed that higher levels of physical activity, eating more fruits and vegetables, and having a BMI in the normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) or overweight range (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) were each associated with better cognitive function in both younger and older adults. Further, by way of mediation analysis (via the Sobel test), it was determined that higher levels of physical activity may be in part responsible for the relationship between higher daily fruit and vegetable consumption and better cognitive performance.

Dr. Alina Cohen, PhD, explains: “Factors such as adhering to a healthy lifestyle including a diet that is rich in essential nutrients, regular exercise engagement, and having an adequate cardiovascular profile all seem to be effective ways by which to preserve cognitive function and delay cognitive decline.” Further that “It is pertinent that we develop a better understanding of the lifelong behaviors that may contribute to cognitive decline in late life by implementing a life-span approach whereby younger, middle-aged, and older adults are collectively studied, and where lifestyle risk factors are evaluated prior to a diagnosis of dementia.”

Citation: Alina Cohen, Chris I. Ardern, and Joseph Baker
Physical activity mediates the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive functioning: a cross-sectional analysis
Journal of Public Health first published online October 31, 2016
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdw113
Adapted from press release by Oxford University Press